If a polynomial function has integer coefficients, then every rational zero will have the form where is a factor of the constant and is a factor of the leading coefficient.

Find every combination of . These are the possible roots of the polynomial function.

Substitute the possible roots one by one into the polynomial to find the actual roots. Simplify to check if the value is , which means it is a root.

Simplify each term.

Raise to the power of .

Multiply by .

Raise to the power of .

Multiply by .

Simplify by adding and subtracting.

Add and .

Subtract from .

Since is a known root, divide the polynomial by to find the quotient polynomial. This polynomial can then be used to find the remaining roots.

Place the numbers representing the divisor and the dividend into a division-like configuration.

The first number in the dividend is put into the first position of the result area (below the horizontal line).

Multiply the newest entry in the result by the divisor and place the result of under the next term in the dividend .

Add the product of the multiplication and the number from the dividend and put the result in the next position on the result line.

Multiply the newest entry in the result by the divisor and place the result of under the next term in the dividend .

Add the product of the multiplication and the number from the dividend and put the result in the next position on the result line.

Multiply the newest entry in the result by the divisor and place the result of under the next term in the dividend .

Add the product of the multiplication and the number from the dividend and put the result in the next position on the result line.

All numbers except the last become the coefficients of the quotient polynomial. The last value in the result line is the remainder.

Simplify the quotient polynomial.

For a polynomial of the form , rewrite the middle term as a sum of two terms whose product is and whose sum is .

Multiply by .

Rewrite as plus

Apply the distributive property.

Factor out the greatest common factor from each group.

Group the first two terms and the last two terms.

Factor out the greatest common factor (GCF) from each group.

Factor the polynomial by factoring out the greatest common factor, .

Factor using the rational roots test.

If a polynomial function has integer coefficients, then every rational zero will have the form where is a factor of the constant and is a factor of the leading coefficient.

Find every combination of . These are the possible roots of the polynomial function.

Substitute and simplify the expression. In this case, the expression is equal to so is a root of the polynomial.

Substitute into the polynomial.

Raise to the power of .

Multiply by .

Raise to the power of .

Multiply by .

Add and .

Subtract from .

Since is a known root, divide the polynomial by to find the quotient polynomial. This polynomial can then be used to find the remaining roots.

Divide by .

Write as a set of factors.

Factor by grouping.

Factor by grouping.

For a polynomial of the form , rewrite the middle term as a sum of two terms whose product is and whose sum is .

Multiply by .

Rewrite as plus

Apply the distributive property.

Factor out the greatest common factor from each group.

Group the first two terms and the last two terms.

Factor out the greatest common factor (GCF) from each group.

Factor the polynomial by factoring out the greatest common factor, .

Remove unnecessary parentheses.

If any individual factor on the left side of the equation is equal to , the entire expression will be equal to .

Set the first factor equal to .

Subtract from both sides of the equation.

Set the next factor equal to .

Add to both sides of the equation.

Divide each term by and simplify.

Divide each term in by .

Cancel the common factor of .

Cancel the common factor.

Divide by .

Set the next factor equal to .

Subtract from both sides of the equation.

The final solution is all the values that make true.

Find the Roots/Zeros Using the Rational Roots Test c(x)=2x^3+3x^2-1