Apply the product rule to .

Raise to the power of .

Multiply by .

Rewrite as .

Rewrite as .

Rewrite as .

Raise to the power of .

One to any power is one.

Simplify (-i)^12

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# Simplify (-i)^12

Apply the product rule to .

Raise to the power of .

Multiply by .

Rewrite as .

Rewrite as .

Rewrite as .

Raise to the power of .

One to any power is one.

Simplify (-i)^12